Vector Particle Physics

**Thomas N. Lockyer**

**(10/10/1926)**

**Why I have this Web Page**

The standard model (SM) of particle physics cannot derive the mass and magnetic moment for the composite proton and neutron. The lack of particle details makes the SM useless for other branches of science. When, in 1975 I tried to model the structures for subatomic particles it was apparent that the quark model could not be incorporated into the correct results of the vector particle theory.

I find by using a new type of quantum vector where vector lengths represent wavelengths rather than amplitudes, has worked wonders. This immediately puts the vector structures into the upside down world of the quantum, where smaller size represents more (mass) energy. With this approach, I find it is possible to derive all related fundamental physical constants, in the same precision they are known experimentally. The SM fails this test.

**The Structure of Energy (The Photon)**

**Figure 1. The traveling wave of electromagnetic energy as viewed from our stationary frame of reference and showing the photon's relativistic frame of reference actual photon structure.**

The secret to the structure of matter is the structure of energy (the photon) itself. The structure of the photon is deduced by reviewing the well known traveling wave of electromagnetic energy.

The traveling wave is distorted by relativity when viewed from our stationary frame of reference. We see the electric field strength (E= Volt per meter) and the magnetic field strength (H= Ampere per meter) as being in phase. These waveforms are supposed to be mutually dependent and inseparable, in a sine-cos *reactive* relationship, *not in phase* as seen by our distorted view.

By viewing what the photon sees from within its own relativistic frame of reference, we see the true nature of the photon as the combination of two conjugate E to H and H to E resonanaces. This immediately shows the correct sin-cos in each resonance and thus transports a constant energy over all time in the photon by the trigonometric identity, sine squared theta + cosine squared theta, that equals one for any angle theta.

**Leptons structured By the Photons Quantum vectors;**

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**Figure 2. Natural Boundaries on Basic Lepton Types.**

Anticipating later results, the Figure 2 structures are labeled as the leptons they were later found to mimic.

The fact that only five structures can be formed is the best possible outcome, because this makes the types of electromagnetic cube structures naturally limiting. All previous theories (SM included) have lacked such natural boundaries.

Later, after much work, it was found the above five exclusive basic particles were the electron, positron, electron type neutrino and muon type neutrino pair.

Rather than try to invent electron and neutrino electromagnetic structures, they are given to us automatically ( and it turns out precisely) by simply exhausting ALL possible ways nature can form closed electromagnetic structures, from the photon.

In fact, making particle structures, from the photons Poynting vectors, is so simple a process it could be an interesting assignment for a high school student.

Only vector particle physics can automatically give us these correct structures, structures that could never be imagined otherwise.

Listen to the video on: "**Photon Model and Lepton Formation**" in; http://www.vectorparticlephysics.blogspot.com

**The Vector Particle Electron Perfectly Formed Size;**

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**Figure 3. The Edge length, by the calculus of related rates becomes exactly the rationalized Compton wavelength of the electron (Lambda divided by 2pi) at vector joining edges.**

The vector particles are formed at only one energy where the photons E and H vectors are the same length. This energy is unique to one value since the E varies inversely as the square and H varies inversely as the forth power. At this unique energy, the photon changes from a boson (that normally shuns other photons) to a lepton. Later it will be shown that the resulting exact size of the electron and positron sets all of the precision we see in nature. (For one example the stunning precision of atomic clocks).

In Figure 3, the mass radius becomes Lambda divided by 4pi, exactly the radius that makes the spin angular momentum equal to the well known 1/2 h bar.

In Figure 3, the charge radius becomes the square root of 2 times the mass radius, exactly that value that is required to derive the fundamental charge, the Bohr magneton, and a previously unknown electron flux quantum.

Listen to the video on "**VECTOR ELECTRON DERIVED FLUX QUANTUM**" in; http://www.vectorparticlephysics.blogspot.com

**The Vector Electron derived Fundamental Charge;**

It has always been a mystery before vector particles, why the electron, muon and proton all have *exactly* the same fundamental charge despite having different mass and magnetic moments. First we show the vector electron derived charge (Fig 4) and then show that any sized vector particle will have the same charge as a result of using the quantum vectors as wavelengths (Fig 5).

**Figure 4. Perfect derivation of the fundamental charge by the quantum vector particle physics (QVPP) electron structure.**

**Figure 5. Deriving the exact fundamental charge using a non sense structure edge length of 1 meter, to show that fundamental charge of the muon and proton does not depend on size!!**

Listen to the video "**DERIVING THE FUNDAMENTAL CHARGE**" in; http://www.vectorparticlephysics.blogspot.com

**Vector Structures for the Proton and Neutron.**

The vector structures for the electron, positron and electron type neutrino can be scaled to the mass ratios of the proton and neutron. The vectors of the electron and positron (real or virtual) combine with the vectors of the electron type neutrino to form the precise interior of the proton and neutron.

**Figure 6. The combination of electron or positron vectors with those of the electron type neutrino produce charge conjugation between layers in the proton and neutron. The non-spinning vector neutrinos vectorially acquire spin and hence store rest mass energy, when scaled inside of the spinning outer assemblage vortex. The electron type neutrinos spin stores about 95% of the composite proton mass. The resulting electrical potential energy between nested cubes adds about 5% overall to nucleon mass.**

The scaled layers in the composite proton and neutron sum to the mass ratios correctly. Scaling is adjusted for the anomalous magnetic moments, geometrically with five terms of the alternating power series of the fine structure divided by pi.

**Figure 7. The vector structures scale to the mass ratio of the proton to within about 3 parts per million(ppm) and the neutron mass ratio to within about 400 parts per billion (ppb).**

Getting the proton mass to within 3ppm is like getting the length of a football field to within the thickness of three sheets of paper.

**Figure 8. The vector proton and neutron scaling gives the mass energy contribution of the electron type neutrino to the neutron. (n-1H) of the electron type neutrino. The (n) is the neutron mass from which is subtracted the electron and proton (1H) leaving just the spinning neutrino mass contribution of 7.85726E5 equivalent volts.**

**Listen to the video on "PROTON AND NEUTRON STRUCTURES" http://www.vectorparticlephysics.blogspot.com**

There is independent proof, that the quantum vector particle structures for the proton and neutron are correct, from newly discovered undamped magnetic moments for the proton and neutron.

It turns out that the magnetic moment calculated, from the scaling to the active core particle, shows that the magnetic moments for the proton and neutron are about 28% larger than the magnetic moments obtained with nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) measurement techniques.

The previously unknown damping loss developes during the precession resonance nrm magnetic measurement.

The fixed damping loss was verified with the vector structures in 1979.

It turns out that the vector proton core particle can only precess through a small fixed angle.

The small angle was geometrically calculated to be exactly 11.8470041542625 degrees.

The damping loss then was calculated and the magnetic moment obtained was within 33ppm of the nmr published value, as proof of concepts.

Nineteen years later (1998) when calculating the binding energy of the deuteron, it was discovered that the proton un-damped magnetic moment, derived in 1979,

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could be obtained within about 0.99% of that obtained from the published deuteron binding energy, by using the quadratic equation. Compare;

This result is what a theorist hopes for, an independent proof that he indeed has the correct structures for energy and matter. Along the way the strong force and the electromagnetic force were unified.

The new found ability to calculate nucleon binding energy, from the charges and magnetic moments, allows, in the Quantum Vector Particle Physics (QVPP) books, deducing the nuclear arrangement of different isotopes. Nuclei up through Sulfur 32 were modeled.

There were rules that developed for the ways nucleons were forced to combine in nuclei that allows one to tell which isotopes were stable or unstable against decay. For example one can clearly see why the Helium 5, and Lithium 5 isotopes are unstable.

Here in Figure 8, the strong force binding energy physics is demonstrated for the deuteron (a simple binding between a single proton and neutron).

**Figure 8. Calculation of the binding energy (in equivalent electron volts) the pole to pole is the deuteron mathematics. The dipole to dipole binding only exists in more complex nuclei.**

In Figure 8, the electrical potential energy (Pe) and the magnetic potential energy (Pu) are given in equivalent volts (eV) by dividing by the fundamental charge (e). The (mu sub pm) is the vector proton static magnetic moment, and the (mu sub nm) is the vector neutron static magnetic moment. The BPN dipole to dipole binding energy is only seen as stable when part of a nucleus.

Here in Figure 9 is shown the electromagnetic forces at play in the strong force binding as the proton captures the neutron to form the deuteron.

**Figure 9. Capture of a neutron by the proton and creation of a photon as the electrical and magnetic energy become exactly equal.**

In Fig. 9, the upper trace *Pe(r) *is the electrical potential energy as the proton and neutron core charges approach each other. The neutron has a negative magnetic moment that requires an internal negative charge current, despite showing no external charge.

The proton internal positive core interacts with the neutron internal negative charge, as the nucleon structures merge to form the deuteron.

The proton and neutron are spinning in the same direction, giving the deuteron a spin angular momentum of (1/2)+(1/2)= 1 as is known experimentally.

This spin value means their magnetic moments oppose so the the nucleons are held at the separation of 0.65483 E-15 meters, when the binding energy photon is released (Fig. 9).

Listen to the video "**STRONG FORCE PHYSICS**" on ; http://www.vectorparticlephysics.blogspot.com

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